Acrylic acid is the simplest unsaturated carboxylic acid with both a double bond and a carboxyl group linked to its C3. Acrylic acid is a clear, colorless liquid with a characteristic acrid odor. Fully miscible with water, ethanol, diethyl ether, chloroform, benzene. To prevent its polymerization upon storage acrylic acid is inhibited with hydroquinone. The esters and salts of acrylic acid are collectively known as acrylates.
Vapor-phase oxidation of propylene with air on bismuth, cobalt or molibdenum catalysts through acrolein formation stage;
HCCH + CO + H2O --> CH2=CHCOOH
Interaction of ethylene chlorohydrine with KCN with following hydrolysis of ethylene cyanohydrine at ïðè 160 Â°C in presence of water H2SO4;
Acrolein oxidation with air in presence of vanadium acids at 20-34 Â°C;
CH2=CH2 + COCl2 --> ClCH2CH2C(O)Cl --> CH2=CHCOOH
Acrylic acid and its esters readily combine with themselves or other monomers (e.g amides, acrylonitrile, vinyl, styrene and butadiene) by reacting at their double bond, forming homopolymers or copolymers which are used in the manufacture of various plastics, coatings, adhesives, elastomers as well as floor polishes and paints.