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acrylonitrile

Product name acrylonitrile
Synonyms vinyl cyanide
propenitrile
2-propenenitrile
cyanoethene
GOST 11097-86
CAS 107-13-1

Acrylonitrile is a colorless liquid with a pungent odor. It is miscible in most organic solvents; boundedly soluble in water. Acrylonitrile forms azeotropes with water, methanol, benzene, carbon tetrachloride. It is an important industrial monomer. Acrylonitrile forms useful copolymers with a number of monomers. Upon storage it is stabilized with hydroquinone to prevent spontaneous polymerization. Being treated with concentrated sulfuric acid acrylonitrile converts into acrylamide or acrylic acid. Dimerization of acrylonitrile affords adiponitrile.

Production.

  • Over 90 percent of world acrylonitrile capacity is produced by Sohio process, the catalytic ammonolysis of propylene at 400-485°C in the presence of catalysts (bismuth molibdates or phosphomolibdates, cerium molibdates or tungstates, antimonium, uranium, tin or iron oxides):

    CH2=CH-CH3 + NH3 + 1.5O2 --> CH2CHCN + 3H2O

  • by direct addition HCN to acetylene:

    HCCH + HCN --> CH2CHCN

    Uses.

  • polyacrylonitrile fibers and plastics preparation;
  • to make a number of useful copolymers (ABS-plastics and resins, butadiene-nitrile rubber, copolymers with vinyl chloride, styrene (SAN plastics and resins), nitrile elastomers);
  • as an intermediate in production of acrylamide, cyanoethyl cellulose, glutamic acid, adiponitrile, polyols and other organic chemicals;
  • as a fumigant;

  • Manufacturer(s) OJSC Polymir
    OJSC Saratovorgsintez
    Chemical structure of acrylonitrile

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