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azodicarbonamide

Product name azodicarbonamide
Synonyms azobisformamide
ADA
ADC
azobiscarboxamide
azodicarbodiamide
azodicarboxamide
azodiformamide
azobisformamide
1,1'-azobisformamide
diazenedicarboxamide
diazenedicarbonic acid amide
GOST no data
CAS 123-77-3

Azodicarbonamide H2NC(O)N=NC(O)NH2 is a yellow-orange odorless crystalline solid. It is almost insoluble in water at 20°C (<50 mg/L), although it is slightly soluble in hot water. It is also insoluble in many organic solvents, but it dissolves in N,N-dimethyl formamide and dimethyl sulfoxide. Azodicarbonamide has a very low vapour pressure 2.53*10-11 kPa at 20°C

Azodicarbonamide is a thermally unstable compound. Being heated it decomposes to release dinitrogen gas and small amounts of gaseous ammonia. The optimal temperature of thermal decomposition is 210°C and higher. This reaction shows an exothermal and autocatalytic nature. One gram of azodicarbonamide being decomposed releases about 230 mL of gaseous products.

The temperature of decomposition depends on the size of particles of azodicarbonamide powder. Chemical industry produce a variety of azodicarbonamide products. In general, these sorts differ from each other by dispersity and catalytic additives, which used to extend the temperature range of decomposition.

Azodicarbonamide behaves as a hydrogen acceptor, being combined with hydrogen donors it easily and completely converts into hydrazoformamide (biurea) H2NC(O)NH-NHC(O)NH2.

Azodicarbonamide is of low acute toxicity by all routes and does not cause skin, eye, or respiratory tract irritation. It is known that azodicarbonamide has been added to consumer products such as bread and beer, but its usage is banned in Australia and some other countries. The key toxic effect of azodicarbonamide in humans is asthmagenicity.

Azodicarbonamide should be stored in cool (below 50°C) blackout place in the distance of heat radiators to prevent spontaneous decomposition.

Production.

Generally azodicarbonamide is prepared in industry by condensation of hydrazine sulfate with urea under high temperature and pressure. This reaction results in hydrazoformamide which is oxidized with sodium hypochlorite and centrifuged to yield a slurry containing end product. The slurry is washed to remove impurities and dried to obtain the azodicarbonamide powder.

Azodicarbonamide synthesis from urea and hydrazine


Chemical industry manufactures azodicarbonamide in dispersity range 3-30 micron.

Uses.

  • As a blowing agent for rubbers and plastics such as PVC, polyolefins, polystyrenes upon moulding, extrusion and rotary formation. Since it releases a small amount of ammonia it is inapplicable for polyesters such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polycarbonate and others.
  • as an aging and bleaching agent in cereal flours and dough conditioner in baking bread.

Manufacturer(s) no data
Chemical structure of azodicarbonamide

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