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citric acid, monohydrate

Product name citric acid, monohydrate
Synonyms 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, monohydrate
GOST 908-79
CAS 5949-29-1

Citric acid, monohydrate (2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, monohydrate) is a colorless crystalline solid. It is readily soluble in water, ethanol, methanol; boundedly soluble in diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. Citric acid monohydrate is practically insoluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons. It is crystallized from water solution at the temperature <36.5°C. The monohydrate can be converted to the anhydrous form of citric acid by heating it above 74°C. In biochemistry, citric acid is involved in important metabolism of almost all living things; the Krebs cycle (also called citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle), a part of the process by which animals convert food to energy.


  • Major industrial route to citric acid used today, cultures of Aspergillus niger are fed on sucrose from sugar or treacle to produce citric acid. After the mold is filtered out of the resulting solution, citric acid is isolated by precipitating it with lime (calcium hydroxide) to yield calcium citrate salt, from which citric acid is regenerated by treatment with sulfuric acid;
  • by the reaction of ketene with acetooxalic acid anhydride;


  • in food industry as acidity regulator, sequestering and stabilizing agent, antioxidants synergist, firming agent (E330);
  • as a buffer in acidic solutions;
  • to produce an extensive series of salts, esters, and mixed (double) salts;
  • in metal-cleaning compositions as it chelates metals;
  • as an intermediate in plasticizers (citric acid esters) and other chemicals and pharmaceuticals syntheses;
  • as a component of number of pharmaceuticals;

  • Manufacturer(s) JSC Citrobel
    Chemical structure of citric acid monohydrate

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