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morpholine

Product name morpholine
Synonyms tetrahydro-1,4-oxazine
diethylene oximide
diethylenimide oxide
GOST no data
CAS 110-91-8

Morpholine is a clear, colorless, volatile, hygroscopic liquid with a characteristic amine odor. It is miscible in water and most organic solvents. The mixture of morpholine and water does not have a constant boiling point. Therefore morpholine in aqueous solution is not easily separable by distillation or entraining. It is a heterocyclic chemical compound, which has both a secondary amine and an ether functional group; its molecule has a chair structure. Morpholine is chemically stable and is not expected to degrade in hot water, acid and alkali solutions. It forms morpholinium salts with mineral acids. It reacts with aldehydes and ketones with hydrogen atoms in alfa-position to form enamines.

Production.

Commercially morpholine is produced:

  • by reaction of diethylene glycol and ammonia;
  • by dehydration of diethanolamine with a sulfuric acid or oleum at 180°C:

    Morpholine synthesis from diethanolamine


  • by interaction of bis(2-chloroethyl)ether with excess of ammonia at 150°C and 12 MPa:

    Morpholine synthesis from bis(2-chloroethyl)ether


    Uses.

  • as a solvent itself for resins, dyes, casein, and waxes;
  • in both fossil fuel and nuclear power plant steam systems as a pH adjustment additive in low concentrations. Morpholine is used because its volatility is about the same as water, so its concentration becomes distributed rather evenly in both the water and steam phases.
  • is to prevent corrosion of equipment;
  • as a component of polishes and waxes;
  • as a preservative, primarily with fruit waxes;
  • as an absorbent for catching of carbon disulfide and COS;
  • for the formulation of water-resistant emulsifier or plasticizer in toiletry and cosmetic products;
  • to produce pharmaceuticals such as anesthetics, antibiotics and antiseptics;
  • as a raw material to manufacture rubber chemicals for vulcanization and stabilization, optical brightener for detergents, preservative for book paper, colourants for hair dyes and blueprints and others;

  • Manufacturer(s) JSC Volzhsky Orgsynthese
    Chemical structure of morpholine

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