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phenol technical grade

Product name phenol technical grade
Synonyms carbolic acid
GOST 23519-93
CAS 108-95-2

Phenol is a colorless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. It turns in pink color upon storage on air due to oxidation. Phenol is soluble in ethanol, methanol, diethyl ether, acetone, chloroform and most organic solvents. It has a limited solubility in water at room temperature (6.7g in 100ml at 16°C), but fully miscible in it above 66°C. It forms azeotrope with water (bp = 99.6°C, 9.2% of phenol by mass). Phenol is a weak acid. Its salts esters and ethers are called phenolates. Alkali metal phenolates can be carboxylated (Kolbe-Schmidt reaction). Thus, sodium phenolate reacts with carbon dioxide to give salicylic acid; reaction of potassium phenolate with carbon dioxide results in p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Electrophilic substitution in phenol take place into o- and p-positions. Phenol readily reacts with carbonyl compounds to form condensation products, such as: phenol-formaldehyde resins (with formaldehyde), Bisphenol A (with acetone), phenolphthaleine (with phthalic anhydride). It can be oxidized with oxygen or sodium persulfate in alkali medium to form hydroquinone. Phenol have an antiseptic property.

Production.

  • by cumene oxidation (cumene or Udris-Sergeev process) with air at 90-130°C in the presence of alkali additives to form cumene hydroperoxide followed by cleavage with sulfuric acid into phenol and acetone:

    C6H5CH(CH3)2 + O2 --> C6H5C(CH3)2OOH --> C6H5OH + CH3COCH3

  • by oxidative chlorination of benzene at 270°C in the presence of iron and copper oxides followed by chlorobenzene hydrolysis at 450-550°C on SiO2 (Raschig process):

    C6H6 + HCl + 1/2O2 --> C6H5Cl + H2O
    C6H5Cl + H2O --> C6H5OH + HCl


  • by toluene oxidation with air at 150-170°C and 1.5MPa to form benzoic acid on cobalt catalyst with subsequent oxidative decarboxylation at 230-240°C on copper (toluene process);
  • by benzene sulfonation at 120-150°C and 0.25MPa to give benzenesulfonic acid followed by fusion with sodium hydroxide NaOH at 320°C;

    Uses.

    Phenol is applied:

  • in making Bisphenol A - a feedstock to produce polycarbonate, epoxy resins, fire retardants, thermoplastics;
  • as a raw material in preparation pf phenolic resins;
  • to manufacture caprolactam, adipic acid, aniline, alkylphenols (surfactants), hydroquinone;
  • as a reagent in preparation of pharmaceuticals, such as salicylic acid and its derivatives, phenolphthaleine and so on;
  • as a starting material in production of pesticides, plasticizers, dyes and other chemicals;
  • in medicine as antiseptic and desinfectant;

  • Manufacturer(s) JSC Omsky kauchuk
    OJSC Saratovorgsintez
    Chemical structure of phenol;carbolic acid;phenyl alcohol;phenoxybenzene;phenylic

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